Programme

It is a track on graphics models, performance processing, real time and interactive visualization on the medical related data. One special subject is the development of teaching materials and learning objects by repurposing graphical and visual information.

Saturday, 7 April, 2012 - 08:00 to 09:30
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Creating Medical eLearning Resources through Repurposing Procedures, Social and Semantic Web Functionalities

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Abstract: The creation of new, high quality eLearning resources is most of the time a very complex process that requires elaborate planning, long implementation time and the involvement of both medical and IT specialists. Addressing these issues, research and educational communities in medicine have studied different approaches for maximizing the quality of the resources while maintaining the costs at a low level. Most promising solutions used at present involve materials sharing between different content providers (either automatically or based on human content editors) and the creation of new resources based on already existing ones, in an approach named repurposing. One of the key steps in this approach is the identification of relevant and high quality resources. As this is not a trivial task, we present a method of describing, evaluating and recommending the best materials through social interactions and Semantic Web functionalities. In our solution each resource is described through a social profile encoded in RDF format that is later enriched with semantic connections based on different medical ontologies (Mesh, Snomed, etc.). For describing the resources, both on social and semantic level, we are using mEducator 3.0 which uses the mEducator schema for data modelling and repurposing history description. Another major issue in developing medical eLearning resources is generated by the fact that most of the medical specialists that are creating teaching materials do not have a thorough technical background, so they require the assistance of an IT specialist. As an alternative, we are presenting MEDIS, a meta-design oriented application that provides specialized tools for data retrieval, visual presentation management, user interaction settings and resources repurposing. Through simple, dedicated interfaces, medical specialists can integrate in the same resource images, videos, texts or 3D resources, from remote locations over the Internet, without having specialized technical knowledge.
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Graphical Simulation and Visualization of Human Organs

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A physically based modeling of deformable objects is used in various applications (from games to medical simulations) to increase the realism and to allow relevant interactions. The medical training education could benefit from this approach to model human organs as deformable objects that could be used in a computer based surgical simulation. These simulations must include interactions of different surgical tools with multiple deformable objects, allowing the surgeons to learn and practice in a realistic environment. To achieve a certain degree of realism, the simulation environment need to support complex 3D models of human organs, complex geometry and material properties of objects, real time interactions, etc. In this paper, we discuss and analyze different approaches to simulate and interact with complex 3D models of human organs, modeled as deformable objects in an efficient and realistic manner and using NVIDIA PhysX technology for real time simulations. An important component is the collision detection, not only for realism but also because the simulation involves different medical instruments, modeled in this case as rigid objects. We also present two case studies for modeling and interacting with two human organs, stomach and lungs.
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Distributed processing and analysis of medical images based on Grid infrastructure

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The need of requiring and analyzing large volume of medical data is one of the main issues concerning the modern society. The information of these medical images is available in different formats and stored in multiple remote locations. The Computer Aided Detection (CADe) algorithms, based on features extraction and pattern classification, could be used in order to improve the diagnosis of the most frequently known diseases. In order to achieve this purpose, the algorithms should rapidly analyze all the input dataset and generate the correct output in a reasonable amount of time. The Grid infrastructure is the most suitable solution for these kinds of problems, by offering large data repositories, high power computation mechanisms and the possibility to perform parallel and distributed data processing at the same time. In order to simplify the user actions, the paper proposes a new Web application that encapsulates all these features: algorithms parallelization, storage and computing support, data management, online results visualization and analysis, etc. The solution is based on representing all these algorithms as acyclic graphs, called PDG (Process Description Graph) and iPDG (instantiated PDG), used in the Grid execution processes. The gProcess platform is the middleware that assures the communication between the Web application and the Grid infrastructure.
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Distributed Computer Aided Detection Algorithms

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Today medical computing requirements are growing due to the need to make Computer Aided Detection (CADe) available for all patients. Development of CADe software is an ongoing issue, mostly due to the high computational and storage costs of detection algorithms. The objective of this paper is to identify, study, and test the feasibility of distributed algorithms for computer aided detection, which are able to scale to increasingly larger inputs and larger datasets corresponding to more intense processing. There are two parallel approaches to the problem, the first one tries to respond to the need for greater access to this type of software and diagnostic methods, by creating the premise for massive parallel execution of these algorithms. The second method hinges on the idea of parallelizing the algorithms for detection, making them execute faster and do more intensive processing thus raising the quality of the response. The solution of the proposed subject is based on gProcess, an interactive toolset supporting the flexible description, instantiation, scheduling and execution by Grid processing. Within the framework description of a processing, the workflow is done via Process Description Graphs, which are directed graph of processing nodes.
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Exploring a graphic cluster based solution for real-time virtual surgery

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Surgical simulators have been continuously gaining popularity in the medical world. As simulated morphologies become increasingly complex, there is a growing demand for simulators to do fast and precise calculations in order to allow the user to interact with the system in real-time. Due to performance reasons, many existent surgical simulators are based on simple, fast mass-spring deformable models. However, even physically based models such as these, display slow convergence behavior as model resolution and size increases. Parallelization can be used in order to improve the performance of surgical simulators and to allow improved realism of tissue deformation. This paper explores a graphic cluster based solution to accelerate calculations for mass-spring models. Acceleration is obtained by harnessing the parallel processing power of the GPU and by dividing computational effort among more computers, organized in cluster architecture. The solution uses the new OpenCL standard for General Purpose GPU programming, OpenMPI for distributed computing and VirtualGL for remote visualization and interaction.
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Facilitating Healthcare Reform through Evidence-Based Research: The Role of Technology Acceptance among Healthcare Professionals and End-Users

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Background: Health informatics aim to facilitate and reform existing healthcare services, with multiple benefits for both healthcare professionals and patients or end-users. Nevertheless, not all professionals or patients are keen on new technology usage, and this may considerably limit the applicability and impact of contemporary health IT applications on the healthcare system. Tailor-made theoretical models derived from social psychological research can help researchers and policy-makers in healthcare to better understand and validly predict health professionals and end-users’ acceptance of health informatics applications. Objective: The present paper aims to provide a detailed account of state-of-the-art approaches in technology acceptance in healthcare settings, and present specific recommendations for interventions to increase technology acceptance and utilization. Method: A systematic literature review was conducted retrieving published studies on technology acceptance models in healthcare settings. Results/Conclusions: Acceptance and utilization of health informatics applications is determined by a range of psychosocial factors well described in studies of technology acceptance. Such empirical findings should be incorporated in interventions aiming to promote health informatics utilization in both health professionals and other potential end-users.
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With the tremendous evolution of informatics networks, the "simplification" of interconnecting end-user features, people, and especially teachers and students, can access world wide banks of teaching materials. mEducator project, but also other international and national projects started earlier, have highlighted key features, but also key issues in the building, the use, the promotion and the sustainability of such databanks. Based on the analysis of their experience, inside or outside mEducator, the international panel of speakers of this workshop will point out some evidences and interact with the audience to frame the future of open databanks dedicated to medical materials for teaching and learning.

Saturday, 7 April, 2012 - 08:00 to 09:30

Open Data Banks for Medical Studies: the experience of the "French connection" (past, present, future)

Abstract: 
Since 2000, a collective project has been set up in France regarding the production and the publishing of pedagogical resources for medical studies. This project was aimed at organizing across the whole country a new way for medical teaching using new information and communication technologies. A core team of faculties was established in order to define internal and reciprocal rules of work and to negotiate with ministries funds to sustain the project. The first step of this project was the building of a public national consortium called GIP UMVF for Groupement d'Intérêt Public Université Médicale Virtuelle Francophone. This consortium was officially set up in august 2003 and all French Medical Faculties joined in the group until 2005. The functional structure of the consortium is based on several committees dedicated to: production of resources classified by medical discipline; medical pedagogy; methods and technics of indexing, publishing, searching (DocUMVF) and communicating (mobile diffusion). The consortium has organized every year a national congress. Due to the reform of first years of medical studies in France, ministry incentives have oriented the evolution of the consortium to an extended group including pharmacy studies and sport sciences. The new name of the consortium is UNF3S. During this workshop, some key topics will be illustrated and discussed regarding: IPR issues, indexing workflows, resources updating issues, pooling tools between medical and pharmaceutical disciplines and also with other virtual universities (engineering, law, humanity sciences, etc.).
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A cross lingual semantic search engine dedicated to medical teaching resources

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Background: The Catalogue of French-speaking health resources available on the Internet (French acronym: CISMeF) is a portal that gathers French medical Web resources (n90,000). Doc’UMVF is a semantic search engine that allows searching in this database but filtering only medical teaching materials (n=9,697). Currently, Doc’UMVF is based on multi-terminology indexing, consequently, it works with the French (n500,000) and English terms (n1,000,000) of the 32 terminologies included in information system (IS). Using terminologies translated in other language than only French and English would allow cross lingual indexing and information retrieval of teaching material. Objective: To make Doc’UMVF working in several languages. Method: Some terminologies integrated in CISMeF IS have been translated in numerous languages (e.g. International classification of disease, tenth revision, is available in 11 languages, Medical Subject Heading in 16 languages, etc). An enhanced version of the IS was necessary to manage multiple translations and Doc’UMVF has to be adapted to this new IS. Results: HeTOP is a portal that allows cross lingual access to multiple terminologies. A semantic search engine based on such tool could be useful in at least two use-cases. First, for resources that exist in numerous languages, like European Medical Agency (EMA) resources, there is only need for one indexing in one language to allow their retrieval in many European languages. Second, this provides a language independent tool: any teacher, whatever his speaking language was, may index his own teaching material in his own language and any student, whatever his speaking language was, may find it. Conclusions: Doc’UMVF will soon work in the new IS. Nevertheless, its natural language processing tools work only in French, therefore its use should be reserved to advanced user (those who know terminologies). There is not too much development to achieve an operational language independent search engine dedicated to teaching material.
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How young students understand the meaning of metadata fields?

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Background: Sharing pedagogical resources requires indexing. For librarians, indexing is a “natural” step of the general process of publishing. In case of pedagogical resources, instead of other documentary resources, the publishing process is realized by the author himself. Searching for a pedagogical resource means that end-users (publishers and readers) understand the structure and the vocabulary of indexing. In a learning context, such as the one provided by the mEducator project, teachers and students share a common space of vocabulary terms. Objective: Evaluate the variability of the spontaneous understanding of metadata fields by students of a master degree in “quality and risk management in healthcare”. Method: 71 students have been asked to index a same report. They had to work separately and to complete a questionnaire composed of 14 metadata inspired from the Dublin Core initiative. Each student had: 1) to give his/her own definition of each item; 2) to fill each field in order to describe the document. The work was realized according to a blind approach from the “official definitions”. A librarian analyzed the answers and categorized the level of relevance of each answer according to four levels: right, intermediate, wrong and empty. Results: More than half of students gave a right definition of the three following items: language, keywords and contributor. All other items have less than 50% of good answers. Source and coverage have been well defined in 10% of the answers. Conclusion: Among young students, spontaneous understanding of metadata fields for basic indexing is very poor. As consequences, when searching it makes more sense that one has just one field for inputting free text and having a robust method behind for stemming, making it robust to typos and match it to the metadata. Since an advanced form would not mean much to novices indeed.
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Grass root sharing and institutional content interoperability can (and should!) co-exist: the mEducator approach to medical educational resources description

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Traditionally, educational metadata ensure interoperability across distributed repositories and describe content to facilitate use, reuse and repurposing. Web 2.0 and web 3.0 technologies call for a reframing of metadata design and usage. End users enter the loop also as contributors in a global content sharing process ("grass root sharing") and become metadata providers; then the challenges are to achieve effortlessly accurate and useful descriptions, and cater for unanticipated concepts/notions. We discuss how the related metadata design and implementation "tensions" have been tackled in the medical education domain, within the mEducator project. Classic "syntactic interoperability" (i.e., the structure of the metadata) has been reintepreted by adopting linked data principles, and we focused on "semantic interoperability", addressed by the various vocabularies used to fill metadata fields and, as part of it, a kind of "pedagogical interoperability", which is addressed by vocabularies and taxonomies related to learning outcomes and items of medical studies. A set of controlled vocabularies were developed to describe medical educational resources from different angles: 1) a vocabulary for medical educational content types, 2) a vocabulary for identifying components of the resource and support repurposing, 3) a taxonomy of educational outcomes for the medical profession that can help identifying the perspective and goal from which the content is offered. The proposed vocabularies, implemented following semantic web standards, were tested within a content sharing model where end-user (both teachers and learners) and higher education institutional stakeholders are on equal grounds. The indexing of pedagogical resources according to the programme of medical studies remains difficult because of the differences in curriculum in each country, but could be ameliorated by creating a meta ontology for curricula alignment. We discuss the lessons learnt from deployment and place this effort in the context of other initiatives involving both medical and educational vocabulary development.
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Creative Commons and the Public Sector Information (PSI) Directive

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Directive 2003/98/EC on the re-use of public sector information known as the PSI Directive (Directive 2003/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 November 2003 on the re-use of public sector information) harmonizes the rules and practices relating to the exploitation of public sector information. Τhe PSI Directive applies to content regardless of its status under copyright or other intellectual property. The PSI Directive contains instructions on the form in which permissions are given and content is to be provided. It instructs public sector bodies to process requests for re-use and make the content available, using electronic means where possible and appropriate. The obligations mandated by the PSI Directive are compatible with the Creative Commons licensing model and online tools developed by the Creative Commons organization. The PSI Directive’s preferences for making content available online and licensing it online through the use of standardized licensing obviously fits well with the way the Creative Commons model works. The primary objective of both the PSI Directive and the Creative Commons licensing model, which is stimulating re-use to encourage economic activity, means that public sector bodies such as Public Health organizations and public organizations focusing on Medical Research are encouraged to make content available for free or at charges that do not exceed the marginal costs for reproducing and disseminating it. In this short presentation I intend to present common ground between the PSI Directive and the Creative Commons licensing model as well as make a hint on the differences that may exist between them. The aim is to explain why the PSI Directive in sync with the Creative Commons licensing model consist the solid legal ground for proper licensing of works created by Public Health organizations and public organizations focusing on Medical Research.
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Saturday, 7 April, 2012 - 09:30 to 10:00
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Semantic Web and Linked Data for Medical Education

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Over the past years, the semantic web activity has gained momentum with the widespread publishing of structured data as RDF. The Linked Data paradigm has therefore evolved from a practical research idea into a very promising candidate for addressing one of the biggest challenges in the area of the Semantic Web vision: the exploitation of the Web as a platform for data integration and knowledge exchange. The question which will be discussed in this talk is whether Linked Data can complement and facilitate educational applications. We will introduce the main concepts and ideas behind Linked Data and explore how these can be applied for educational applications e.g. in the medical domain.
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Saturday, 7 April, 2012 - 10:00 to 11:15
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A versatile architecture for federating mEducator 3.0 instantiations

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The mEducator ontology has been designed to provide a consistent data scheme, across the various mEducator instances. As the installations get enriched with educational content, resource discovery, retrieval, sharing and reuse becomes more complicated. Consequently, advanced search features are needed to avoid content duplication and assist the learners in conveniently locating relevant content. To integrate the search functionality of the deployed platforms into a single access point, the search federation service was developed. The service exploits SPARQL 1.1 query-federation functionalityto request information from multiple SPARQL endpoints. The core of the service is based on a Joseki RDF server, which, in turn, is wrapped by an HTTP interface, developed in PHP. The service clients can use a simple syntax to define filters and returned fields, as well as, common Boolean operators and other parameters. In order to test the service, the AUTH mEducator team developed two clients, for its educational platforms. Successful completion of the these test has indicated that this architecture offers a much versatile and flexible method for federating mEducator3.0 instantiations, thereby allowing for a proper sustainability and exit strategy plan for mEducator.
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Extending Moodle2.0 in the semantic and social media spaces for Linked Medical Learning: the mEducator3.0/MILES+ approach

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During the last decades Learning Content Management Systems have experienced an enormous expansion. Proprietary and open source systems have been installed and heavily used across many different institutions. In the new era of semantic web, linked data and social media, it is imperative that LCMSs could not remain unaffected. In terms of this context and taking into consideration mEducator Best Practices for sharing medical educational resources, we have adjusted and further expanded Moodle, an open source LCMS, used by some 57 million users and containing over 53 million resources. The new LCMS, namely Medical inter-Linked Educational Space (MILES+), allows users to properly describe or update their educational resources with mEducator ontology and share them with the rest of the medical educational community by the means of Linked Data through the use of a D2R server. To this extent, mEducator resources form federated systems may be searched, retrieved and inserted into MILES+, without requiring the user to leave his institutional LCMS and search across other systems. In addition, an enhanced educational experience for the user is taking place, since resources from the Linked Open Data Cloud (LOD) are proposed as relating to the platform’s resources thereby enriching the resource context; a geographical representation of the resources is taking place while WEB2.0 technology fosters online collaboration between users.
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Extending Drupal7.0 in the semantic and social media spaces for Open Linked Medical Education: the mEducator3.0/MELINA+ approach

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Drupal is one of the most widely used content management systems, which currently empowers a large number of web sites. In the latest version, semantic web technologies are part of Drupal's core DNA. Until now, exposing information to the Web of Data required considerable expertise in RDF and additional programming effort. The mEducator3.0/MELINA+ is an extended version of Drupal 7; it is offered as an installation profile and enables web site administrators to install a learning management system, which is focused in medical education. Users can create RDFa annotations based on the mEducator schema without any special technical knowledge. A series of features, such as the SPARQL endpoint and the DBpedia spotlight annotation, allow networked sites to re-use and enrich the linked data. The WebID authentication and the FOAF profile modules, transform the content creation process into a socially oriented collaboration and learning experience. When brought together, all these features offer new possibilities to create networked web applications in the medical education space and open the semantic web area to a much larger community of users and administrators.
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Towards an embedded semantic wiki for user training in an ePrescribing service

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Electronic Prescribing (ePrescribing) has been introduced as a solution to improved patient safety and reduced medication costs and therefore, web-based technology should be fully embraced in the pharmacy industry as an aid to quality-assuring prescribing processes. Hence, healthcare information systems are facing the challenge of attempting to satisfy the needs of both novice and expert users, focusing on a high likelihood of physician adoption of ePrescribing. Well-defined ePrescribing processes and interoperable health IT will enable virtual care teams to cooperate in the care of patients across organizational boundaries and may conduct to ePrescribing adoption. However, it should be highly considered that successful healthcare process design requires active participation of users who are familiar with the cooperative and collaborative nature of healthcare delivery, expressed in terms of healthcare processes. Therefore, an ePrescribing service that premises a reusable, flexible, agile and adaptable training content with the objective to enable healthcare professionals cooperate, in order to instil their knowledge and expertise in the ePrescribing process management and (re)configuration activities, it is required. To this end, social software, such as a wiki, could be used as it supports cooperation and collaboration anytime, anywhere and combined with semantic web technology enables structuring pieces of information for easy retrieval, reuse and exchange between different systems and tools. In this approach a semantic wiki is proposed as a means for providing embedded training material for healthcare providers, regarding ePrescribing process management that acts as a collective online memory containing training material accessible to authorized users upon request, thus enhancing the training process with collaboration and cooperation capabilities. The semantic wiki may increase the likelihood of ePrescribing adoption by healthcare professionals as it offers them guidelines on how to perform each task of the ePrescribing service.
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Virtual patients on the Semantic Web: the mEducator3.0/Linked Labyrinth Plus approach

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LLplus (Linked Labyrinth+) is a mEducator3 based on a semantic extension of OpenLabyrinth. It allows OpenLabyrinth users to integrate and share their Virtual Patient’s metadata within mEducator 3.0. Although the core version of OpenLabyrinth does not support extended repository functionalities, LLplus enriches the global metadata describing a Virtual Patient, by applying the mEducator schema on the existing OpenLabyrinth Global Metadata Editor. The Linked Labyrinth Plus approach allows Virtual Patients to be available on the Semantic Web, while it also provides a search mechanism to educational resources that exist in other LCMSs and repositories. The architecture is based on a D2R server that exposes the mEducator metadata to RDF triples and linked data, thereby allowing the connectivity with the Linked Open Data Cloud.
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Saturday, 7 April, 2012 - 11:15 to 11:45
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Saturday, 7 April, 2012 - 11:45 to 13:00
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Discrepancies between normative, expected and observed student workload reveal curriculum structure inconsistencies

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Background: Student workload is considered from three view-points: normative (8 hours/day, 5 days/week, 20 weeks/semester equals 800h/semester); expected (the planned by the teacher workload the average student should devote to get an average pass examination mark 7.5 out of 10, pass cut-point 5); observed (the actual workload students devote to pass the exams). Do they coincide? Methods: A questionnaire was administered to all Ioannina medical students during both 2011 semesters to report the hours they devoted in lectures, laboratories, clinic-attachments, homework, self-study, and examinations for the examined courses. All teachers were asked to report the corresponding hours they have planned their courses for the average student. Results: Of the 284 student questionnaires collected, 277 were valid. Of the 109 courses offered, 50 till now reported corresponding expected hours. Compared to 800h normative semester, first semester students reported 481h (60%), third 771 ( 96%), fifth 666 (83%), seventh 591 (74%), ninth 1217 (152%), eleventh or twelfth 1322 (165%). Giving some course examples, Biostatistics expected workload was 92h (~4ECTS, as officially allocated), while passed students reported average mark 7.0 by 56.2h workload (~2ECTS). Pharmacology expected 213h (~8.5ECTS >7 officially allocated), while passed students reported average mark 8.0 by 187.5h (~7.5ECTS). Robotic surgery (elective) expected workload was 95h (~4ECTS >>1 officially allocated), while passed students reported average mark 8.8 by 17.2h (<1ECTS). Discussion: Teachers and students had no previous experience on this kind of survey and they might have been quite confused. Non-representative student sampling and recall bias are the main limitations. Conclusion: However, tactile numbers are now available, revealing great deviations between normative, expected, observed, and allocated working hours, that seem to be beyond these limitations. Since student workload discrepancies reflect curriculum structure inconsistencies, the solving of the latter will decrease the former. Take-home-message: Quantifying expected and observed student workload gives a great opportunity to restructure our whole curriculum.
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Do medical teachers and medical students communicate? a qualitative study

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Background: The three components of undergraduate medical education are the teachers, the students, and the curriculum. For a high quality medical education, a good communication level between students and teachers and a good organization of the curriculum are necessary. Good communication skills are a necessary capacityfor a medical teacher. Objective: The evaluation of communication level between medical students and medical teachers in University of Ioannina Medical School. Methods: In a first phase (June 2011), 137 third-year students of the Ioannina University Medical School were asked “Why students and teachers do not communicate?” (open) The response rate was 60% (82/137). In a second phase (December 2011), 132 third-year students of the same school (54 male, 60 female, 18 not declared) were asked whether students and teachers communicate well (yes/no) and why(open), and to propose ways to improve this communication (open). The data were analyzed by two independent investigators (LB, JE), and the whole team discussesthe findings in the light of the communication theories of Pavlov, Shannon, Bateson, and Watzlawick. Results: In the first phase, the obstacles in communication were categorized in the following categories: obstacles related to sender and receiver (71/82), obstacles related with the message and the communication pathway (39/82), and obstacles related with the communication background (21/82). In the second phase, 1student absolutely agreed in the question “Teachers and students communicate very well. Do you agree?”, 15 agreed, 62 rather agreed, 36 rather disagreed, 15 disagreed, and 3 absolutely disagreed; Mainly (115/132) they agreed that this communication could be improved, while few (16) did not. Open questions on why they believe so and how to improve are under analysis. Conclusions: The students consider that there are severe problems in communication between students and teachers, and agree that the situation could be improved.
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Strengthening the cooperation in education and health care among medical faculties: the MEFANET project experience and its extensions

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The MEFANET project (MEdical FAculties NETwork) has initiated international, effective and open cooperation among all medical faculties in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. One of the elementary goals of the project is to advance medical teaching and learning with the use of modern information and communication technologies. As an instrument for that, MEFANET has decided to develop an original and uniform solution for educational web portals which are used, together with a central gate, to offer and share digital educational content. Three fundamental principles of the educational web platform will be described: 1. medical disciplines linker, 2. federative framework for users' authentication/authorization, 3. four-dimensional quality assessment. Recent developments have focused on a new set of tools for multidimensional assessment of published contents quality. The following four dimensions are included: A. review, B. typological classification, C. the level of the target groups, D. users’ self-study score. This 4-D assessment promises wider range of tools for the organization of published contents, as well as the opportunity to present teaching materials provided with expert commentary from selected medical professional societies.
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Web based Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (WebOSCEs) at AUTH

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Clinical competency and assessment can poorly achieved through traditional methods in Medicine. An alternative proposal is the development of OSCE stations; OSCE stands for Objective Structured Clinical Examination and is used to test clinical skill performance and competence.In our medical school, the Clinical Skills Lab is organized based on the philosophy of OSCE stations. The OSCE examination and practice, in general, involves a circuit of short (5-15 minutes) stations and each station has a different examiner and simulated patient (actor). The stations are standardized this way and complex procedures areperformed and assessed without endangering real patients' health. An extension of this work was the design and implementation of OSCEs in electronic format (WebOSCEs), on line available to the students. These e-OSCE stations, through the interactive web pages developed- which wereenriched with media material- are aimed to be used to assess applied medical knowledge in the context of basic clinical skills.For that work, the use of two programs, complementary to each other in the area of education, was essential; VUE (Virtual Understanding Environment)and OpenLabyrinth. In our experience, setting up OSCE stations in electronic format is cost and effort effective and can provide a realistic simulation of a real OSCE stations in the era of clinical skills. The aim of that work was to extend clinical practice through new educational experiences and to support medical students in decision takingand professional attitudes.
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Using mEducator technologies in transforming the medical curriculum in AUTH: the ARIADNE project/initiative

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Current medical education is largely based in problem based (PBL) and self directed learning. The aim of ARIADNE project was the design and implementation of a series of virtual patient educational scenarios with the support of mEducator technologies, since the last have offered new potentialities in the fields of medical education in Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. These virtual patients - through the interactive web pages developed – are aimed to be used to assess applied knowledge, clinical reasoning and professional attitudes in the context of medical skills. The project team of ARIADNE (64 attendees from the medical school), including Prof Chatzisevastou-Loukidou as a leader, was trained under her coordination, considering the pedagogical/technical aspects of virtual patient use and design. A pool of virtual patient both linear and branching cases was created and access to virtual patients will be given to 312 medical students (during the end of April 2012.
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Saturday, 7 April, 2012 - 13:00 to 14:00
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Saturday, 7 April, 2012 - 14:00 to 15:30
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MEDTING Medical Images and Cases Exchange Portal

Abstract: 
MedicalExchange Medting Ltd offers a family of web products for eHealth, from collaboration platforms to medical viewers. They are devoted to improve health solutions and medical collaboration and knowledge sharing using cutting edge web 2.0 technologies. Medical Exchange MEDTING is a web 2.0 platform which allows you to create a teaching and academic repository directly from clinical daily activity, enhance e·learning by integrating multimedia content into your learning experience, connect doctors, residents and students into a social web platform, share cases to obtain second opinions and receive cases to review (Telemedicine), and many other features.
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Organs donation and transplantation in the Web: a study on ‘sentiment’ and ‘web reputation’

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The paper presents the results of a/preliminary study on ‘web reputation’ of organs donation and transplantation for the development of an institutional approach to structured mashup viral information in the Web, as part of a national campaign in May 2012 on organs donation. The project is developed by the Italian Ministry of Health and the Italian National Centre for Transplantation (CNT) in collaboration with the R&D e-content Centre of the University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, CReSEC ( www.cresec.it). The study has dealt with the so called “web reputation” and “sentiment” on donation and transplantation in Internet: i. web analysis of statistical diffusion of search strings, through Google Trends, dealing with donation, transplantation, organs, tissues, cells donation and transplantation etc. in Italy and in the English and French speaking worlds; ii. a qualitative analysis of Facebook and Twitter pages through posts and tweets; iii. the collection, classification and analysis of You tube and Flickr multimedia materials through a qualitative metrics based on people, information, institutions and attitudes toward the topics; iv. the collection, classification and analysis of samples of sites as regards quality stress on people, information, emotional attitudes and related linguistic styles. Results signal out the wider impact of the ‘transplantation’ related key words as compared with ‘donation’ on the basis of semantic considerations; problems of omography in digitisation of key words and a diverse diffusion of search interests in Italy and in English/French speaking territories. Specific positive and negative attitudes in websites, (the existence of the ‘predatory’ approach in sites and mismatching information ); the use of a polar linguistic attitude ( either institutional technical information or emotional, lack of a “friendly” scientific informative style ); minor attention to persons in favour of institutions and information. Transversal correlation as regards the commercial trends of organs “donation”.
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Patients and Doctors in Web 2.0 and Social Media

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Background: The broadband and mobile internet access and the widespread use of web 2.0 services and social media have a strong impact on how medicine is practiced, how patients obtain health and healthcare information. The newly acquired skill of patients to access the same sources of medical information as health care professionals brought on notable changes in the traditional doctor-patient relationship. Both doctors and patients, however, do not feel confident yet about the changes that internet and social media have brought. Patients often feel uneasy to disclose to physicians their personal research on the internet and/or their connecting with other patients with similar diseases to exchange information on symptoms, medicines, health care providers. Physicians on the other hand, are uncomfortable with patients who seem to have researched their symptoms or disease and ask questions. Doctors do not offer to patients additional information about diseases, their options for medicines or treatment, and do not indicate reliable information sources on the internet. They are thus, missing opportunities for patient education and building trust in their relationship with patients. Objective: The use of web 2.0 services and social media by physicians and patients varies considerably among regions. In the USA and Northern Europe, it has grown considerably, while in Southern, Central and Eastern Europe it just emerges. The different models of medicine practice in Europe and Anglo-Saxon regions reflect in the use of internet and social media. In many European countries the paternalistic model of medicine practice prevails and is accepted by both healthcare professionals and patients. This study’s objective is to show that web2.0 and social media can be valuable learning, networking and communication tools, using case studies of physicians successfully including web 2.0 services and social media in their medical practice and of expert patients, known as e-patients, who educate themselves, connect with other patients, and improve their health outcomes. Examples of health care providers and patients from Europe including Greece will show how their use of web2.0 and social media differs from that of their peers. Method: As an internet user for health and healthcare information, since the early 90s, an online patient communities’ member and social media active user, the observational method is used. My observations stem from participation in several online social media platforms and tools, online and off-line contacts with Greek, European, and US physicians, patients and members of patient organizations, as well as information from regional and international medicine and patient advocacy conferences, which I attended as speaker or participant. In my observations, I have kept note of findings of published research on health/healthcare use of web2.0 and social media, the social impact of internet on health, mobile health and observed how these apply to doctors and patients in my country and those I come in contact with from other countries. Results: Undoubtedly, American doctors and patients use more broadly and in a more elaborate, sophisticated way the internet and social media, but also in the USA, there are still regions, where the physician remains the basic, if not the ultimate source of information for patients, and also where patients are reluctant to use web2.0 and social media. European doctors and patients have only recently started to use web2.0 and social media, but differently than their American counterparts. Europeans are more conservative in sharing health concerns publicly online or in communicating with other health professionals on medical issues, but once they experience the benefits of crowd-sourcing, usually, they become adepts. In Greece, the physicians on web2.0 and social media are still few and their majority is perplexed about how they can use them. They do not use it for engaging with patients or with peers in medical and/or healthcare topics, but mostly socially about politics, news, chatting with friends, sharing music, photos and videos. Few consider them as modern medical marketing tools. The number of Greek patients on web2.0 and the social media is growing although it is still small. Few Greek patients share their health concerns online, advocate for better healthcare or to promote their cause. Greek patients and doctors use both Greek and English language in social media and connect with other Greeks and foreigners. Conclusions: The web2.0 and social media adoption by physicians and patients varies considerably among countries and different socio-economic demographics, but adoption rates of the last three years show wider spread. The majority of adopters is found in oncology, diabetes, mental and neurological diseases. Southern, Central and Eastern Europe are among the late adopters. Physicians and patients venturing on web 2.0 and social media often use as models power users in their specialty or disease. Web2.0 and social media offer many benefits to physicians and patients, if used with care. They are just tools, and as tools, if the user knows their possibilities and uses them sensibly, he will find out that they are valuable knowledge and engagement means
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From teaching to Development in Competency for Communities of Practice

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Background: For years medical staff in the Capital Region of Denmark has received teaching in new IT systems in class-rooms away from their workplaces. The method of teaching was based on Herskin and one of his educational tools include hands-on learning in the classroom. Today hospitals face lack of resources to support this and it opens for an increasing need for learning within communities of practice. The following method has been tested at one hospital with 3000 clinicians and is intended to be used at eleven hospitals with app. 40.000 clinicians. Objective: Nurses in hospital-units have to use new IT systems to document the care. They are introduced to a new competence-development-concept, where key people play a role as changing agents in implementing IT systems and they are involved and responsible for receiving the IT system. They learn how to use it by watching informative educational films with close transfer and by practical use supported by a consultant from the IT unit. Hereafter they then initiate and support the competency development of colleagues. Method: The competence-development-concept is developed to be used implementing small IT systems and subsequent involves changes in the way of documenting the core of nursing. Core knowledge and information about the IT system are communicated via informative films. Results: By using informative films more exact knowledge is disseminated. The central role key people plays guarantees effectiveness and is of vital importance in the implementation. By affording collegial support expert knowledge are attained and remain in the unit long after implementation. More over key people in their responsibility for qualifying future workflow management also results in additional work development. Conclusions: Competency is developed and knowledge is preserved when methods such as films are used in practice and when key people are involved and responsible in implementing IT systems.
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Using medical imaging and semantic web technologies to support educational activities for Multiple Sclerosis Disease

Abstract: 
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic demyelinating disease affecting the Central Nervous System of young adults in the Western World. It has a variable course usually leading to severe deficits both functional and cognitive. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the imaging method of choice. To enhance its diagnostic role, certain imaging criteria, such as the Barkhof criteria, have been established. The advances in web technologies allow the development of e-learning tools that are able to enhance radiologists diagnostic skills by presenting similar clinical cases based on a set of semantic criteria. In this work, an e-learning tool, namely the Semantic Medical Annotation tool (SEMIA), that can support educational activities in MS field is presented. The proposed approach can support two educational scenarios: a) teach radiology residents in identifying MS lesions by retrieving and presenting similar, according to specific criteria, cases from a MS semantic image repository and, b) develop self assessments and tests that radiology residents can use to enhance their skills in the diagnosis of MS based on the Barkhof criteria. SEMIA is based on state of the art Semantic Web technologies and Medical Image processing methods. The semantic content of the images is annotated using reference ontologies and terminologies such as FMA and RadLex along with an application ontology that has been developed for MS. This approach benefits from the advantages of semantic over keyword search and also enhances the knowledge interoperability among institutions. In order to model the Barkhof criteria, SWRL rules are used providing better reasoning and knowledge integration. The proposed approach enables medical educational content to be discovered, retrieved, shared and re-used across institutions. The advantages of such an approach could greatly enhance the skills of radiology residents in the diagnosis of MS and at the same time could contribute to the set up of a Federation of semantically annotated educational content that radiologists could access continuously to improve their skills.
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Federating Learning Management Systems by use of mash-ups: the mEducator2.0 Portal

Abstract: 
mEducator 2.0 is a tool to facilitate the communication & sharing between medical universities or health professionals. By using the mash-up technologies, it allows to create, share, repurpose learning resources metadata. The system allows to group the resources, classify them, order them by relevance, popularity, repurposing history... All this features are in a social web system to connect the users easily.
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The BioMedLabS Portal: overall experience and educational prospects

Abstract: 
Background: Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) is a popular healthcare profession in Greece, regardless its rather limited career prospects in the local job market. The undergraduates’ and professionals’ awareness concerning the international scientific developments, progress and alternative even innovative career options is low. On the other hand, the Internet and Social Media have become popular means for collecting information as well as networking and collaborating. Objective: The BioMedLabS portal aims to introduce the international scientific standards, raise interest and inspire, collect and provide general information regarding the profession. Specialists’ experiences are also used as a source of knowledge and information to the Greek audience. Methods: Via learning 2.0 services and peers, Greek MLS undergraduate students and professionals get interconnected with Greek MLS specialists working in Europe, at positions other than the conventional clinical laboratory bench, and get familiarized with professional rights and guidelines worldwide. Data collected through the network of expertise and the audience that was built, was assembled and presented in seminars organized at Papageorgiou Hospital. Results: The portal opened 34 months ago (493,139 pageviews in 487 posts and 20 pages) and had 159,852 Unique Visitors from 117 countries (Greeks: 93.8 %). Its Facebook page and updates are followed by 1705 individuals (Gender: Male 35%; Female 65%. Age:18-24, 20%; 25-34, 37%; 35-44 6.7%). The most viewed topics concern job opportunities (trending topic: 5.2% of total pageviews), scholarships (trending topic: 2.1%), MLS (trending topic: 1.4%), working abroad (trending topic: 1.2%) and education (trending topic: 1%). Conclusions: The BioMedLabS portal has set the foundations for Greek MLS scientists to connect with the rest of the world and it has presented alternative ways of collecting knowledge and achieving continuous professional awareness. Future aims include a series of webinars, along with several questionaires of different nature, and potentially the development of a database in order to promote informal education in MLS in Greece.
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Single session
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Saturday, 7 April, 2012 - 15:30 to 15:45
Conference room: 
Single session